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2016多旋翼自主飞行器 (C题)
发布时间:2016-04-27 09:29 作者:admin 来源:竞赛组委会 阅读次数:
                                           多旋翼自主飞行器 C题)
                            

                                青岛农业大学   王祥宇   官庆灿   董培培   指导教师:赵艳华


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摘要 
    本次的作品主要由瑞萨提供的芯片R5F100LEA所构成。通过调节4个电机转速改变旋翼转速,改变升力的变化调整飞行器的姿态和位置。四旋翼的动力来源为无刷直流电机,采用单边PWM的控制方式实现电机的调速,采用三段式启动方式实现电机的软启动。用红外传感器2Y0A02 F55为四旋翼测定高度,采用OV7670摄像头循迹使飞行器从A区到B区。通过对四旋翼工作模式与控制参数的研究,得到相应的控制算法,然后编程实现,模拟相应的飞行姿态。
关键词:四旋翼飞行器    R5F100LEA   航拍
abstract
   The composition of this work mainly by Renesas chip provided by R5F100LEA.  Four rotor aircraft power source is brushless dc motor, so for this class of brushless dc motor speed control system plays a decisive role on the performance of the aircraft.Four rotor aircraft with 2Y0A0 is set high, use ov7670 camera tracking make aircraft from area A to area B. Through the study of four rotor working mode and the control parameters, get the corresponding control algorithm, and then simulate the flight attitude.  
Key words: four rotor aircraft   R5F100LEA   aerial
 
 
 目录
1、方案论证与比较·························································································1
   1.1高度传感器的论证与选择·······································································1
   1.2循迹时用到的传感器的论证与选择···························································1

 
  1. 系统理论分析与计算·················································································1
   2.1控制理论的分析···················································································1
      2.1.1控制方式·····················································································1
      2.1.2欧拉角算法··················································································2
      2.1.3PID算法······················································································2
      2.1.4四元数························································································2
      2.1.5卡尔曼滤波··················································································3

  1. 系统设计································································································3
   3.1总体设计····························································································3
   3.2模块设计····························································································4
      3.2.1航拍模块·····················································································4
      3.2.2导航模块·····················································································4
      3.2.3姿态控制模块···············································································5
      3.2.4电磁铁模块··················································································5

  1. 软件设计································································································5
4.1软件总体流程图·······················································································5
4.2定高模块································································································6
4.3定点模块································································································6
5、测试方案与测试结果·················································································7
   5.1基本测试数据······················································································7
   5.2基本要求的测试方案·············································································7
   5.3发挥部分的测试方案·············································································8
6、结语·······································································································8
参考文献·····································································································8
附录

  多旋翼自主飞行器 C题)
1、方案论证与比较
1.1高度传感器的论证与选择
方案一:采用HC-SR04模块进行超声波测距,来控制飞行高度。其基本工作原理为采用IO触发测距,给至少10us的高电平信号,模块自动发送8个40khz的方波,自动检测是否有信号返回,测试距离=(高电平持续的时间*声速(340m/s))/2。
方案二:采用2Y0A02 F55红外传感器来控制飞行高度。由PSD集成组合,IRED和信号处理电路。各种物体反射率,对环境温度和运行时间不易受到影响的距离检测,同时还可作为接近传感器,该款产品的距离测量范围在20—150cm,是一款节能型传感器。
    相同功能的传感器相比较,考虑其稳定性和节能型,所以最终选择方案二2Y0A02 F55红外传感器来控制飞行高度。
1.2循迹时用到的传感器的论证与选择
方案一:采用E3JK-DS30M1漫反射光电开关实现四旋翼的循迹。它的特征是有效作用距离是由目标的反射能力决定,由目标表面性质和颜色决定;较小的装配开支,当开关由单个元件组成时,通常是可以达到粗定位的。
方案二:采用摄像头模块实现四旋翼的循迹。该模块体积小、工作电压低,提供单片VGA摄像和影像处理器的所有功能。用户可以完全控制图像质量、数据格式和传输方式。还可以减少或消除光学或电子缺陷如固定图案噪声、拖尾等。
    由于飞行器的载重能力有限,相比于方案一的粗定位功能,方案二体积小的优点更加凸显,甚至还可消除光学或电子缺陷,因此最终选择方案二实现四旋翼的循迹功能。
2系统理论分析与计算
2.1控制理论的分析
2.1.1控制方式
    本次比赛的难点在于如何使飞行器在空中较好的实现平衡控制,然后使其进行巡线飞行和降落。所研究的四旋翼结构属于X型分布如图1所示。